A persistent identifier, for both consumers and businesses, is a key element in managing fraud. Without this, a bad actor can simply assume a new identity. The use of a national identifier is a “best practice” for emerging digital financial systems. If the national identity system is not sufficiently deployed, or not usable for a payments scheme, a scheme-specific identity should be created and used. Biometrics associated with the national ID appear to be an excellent mechanism to control fraud: it will be interesting to see how the various national programs using biometrics perform in the coming years.