Blockchain Technologies

The non-hub model may be more conducive to eventually using the “transport” capabilities of emerging blockchain technologies. The potential for dramatically lower costs with these technologies is of particular interest for financial inclusion. Read More

Switch: How Should Transactions be Routed?

This issue pre-supposes that the “scheme interoperability” option has been chosen. (See Issue: Interoperability)Any multi-participant payments scheme requires a switching functionality to pass transactions from one participant to another. There are a variety of models in payments systems today that can be considered. A central “hub” switch is operated by… Read More

Participation: What Categories of DFS Providers Should be Permitted?

The Level One Project Guide uses the term “participation” to refer to entities who are direct members of a payments scheme: the Digital Financial Services (DFS) Providers. The payments scheme is the entity which writes and maintains the rules that bind these scheme participants. Note that participation is not necessarily… Read More

Mandates on Interoperability

Many countries are also dealing with the question of whether or not interoperability should be mandated by regulation, or left to the market to lead. There are pros and cons to this issue, and there will be considerable variability from country to country in how this is handled, particularly given… Read More

Governance: Who Should Govern the Payments Scheme Within a Country?

Who governs the payments scheme or organization within a country? With a closed-loop structure, the question is obvious: the scheme is owned and governed by the provider of the system. With an open-loop system, or with interoperating closed-loop systems, there is a question of who governs either the system or… Read More

Identity and Biometrics

A persistent identifier, for both consumers and businesses, is a key element in managing fraud. Without this, a bad actor can simply assume a new identity. The use of a national identifier is a “best practice” for emerging digital financial systems. If the national identity system is not sufficiently deployed,… Read More

Linking Mobile and Account Identification

Identification is becoming an increasingly interesting and relevant topic in digital financial services. Please view the following articles that discuss mobile identification as well as linking mobile ID to bank account identification. Mobile Pay Players Focused on Biometrics Authentication The expansion of mobile money in the developing world has… Read More

Fraud Management: Where Should Fraud Be Managed?

There are many aspects of risk management in the operation of any payment system. In this section, we look specifically at fraud management. In most traditional payments systems, the service providers (normally banks) assume responsibility for detecting fraud in payments to/from their end-customers. This includes correctly managing the “know your… Read More

More on Fee Structure

In thinking through developing a vibrant digital financial system, issues such fee structure are critically important, particularly for the bottom of the pyramid. We have curated articles and whitepapers on these specific issues below, which we encourage you to read and discuss. Fighting Poverty Profitably In this report, the… Read More

Guest Opinion: The Importance of a Common Brand

May 2015:Carolina Trivelli is responsible within ASBANC, the Peruvian banking association charged with developing “Modelo Perú,” the new mobile money service mandated by federal legislation in 2014. Carolina was formerly the Minister of Development and Social Inclusion for Perú, and is committed to making “Modelo Perú” an instrument for financial… Read More

Brand: Should There be a Common Brand or Service Mark?

How do the two parties to a payment transaction tell each other they are going to pay? Sometimes, this is done with a payment system brand (“Do you take Visa?”) and sometimes with a common term (“May I give you a check?”). In a country-wide digital financial system, should there… Read More

International Remittances

Leveraging a digital financial services system like the one described in the Level One Project Guide for international remittance payments offer a strong opportunity for the developing world. Remittances currently account for approximately $540 Billion USD a year in transactions and the number of remittances are actually increasing year-to-year. Meanwhile, the… Read More

Agents: Should Agents Be Exclusive to Providers?

Reaching a broad population of unbanked consumers to provide financial services is a challenge in many countries. Both banks and non-banks have used agents (affiliated but not owned third parties), as permitted by regulations, to deliver aspects of financial services or (in the case of MNO’s) to handle the sale… Read More